Against the law : intellectual property and content control

This  week’s  topic  in  class,  we  learned  about  Against  the  law : Intellectual  property   and  content  control.  The  reading this  week  is  based  on  in  Free  Culture:  How  Big  Media  Uses  Technology  and   the  Law  to  Lock  Down  Culture  and  Strangle  Creativity  by  Lawrence  Lessig.

Back  in  the  16th  century,  copyrights  never  exist  for  there  was  no  accessed  or  the  right  tools  to  copy  stuff.  All  they  can  do  was  write  everything  back  in  hand  which  is  tiresome  and  time  consuming.  Before  copyright,  nobody  had  ownership  towards  anything  but  only  to  lands.  This  allows  people  to  copy,  modify  or  sell  content  created  by  others.



Image  URL  :


How  does  relate to  the  reading?  Well,  I’m  sure  everyone  knows  who  Mickey  Mouse  is  from  Disney  Channel.  But  how  did  the  character  come  about?  It  all  started  in  the  year  1928  where  Mickey  Mouse  made  his  early  debut  in  May  in  that  year,  in  a  silent  flop  called  Plane  Crazy.  November  that  year,  in  New  York  City’s  Colony  Theater  where  the  first  widely  distributed  cartoon  synchronized  with  sound,  Steamboat  Willie  brought  to  life the  character  that  would  become  Mickey  Mouse.  Some  people  might  not  know  it  but  the  character  you  see  in  the  image  above  is  a  direct  cartoon  parody  of  Steamboat  Bill  and  both  was  built  upon  a  common  song  as  a  source.

According  to  Lessig,  (2004)  “This  ‘borrowing’  was  nothing  unique,  either  for  Disney  or  for  the  industry.  Disney  was  always  parroting  the  feature-length  mainstream  film  of  his  days.”  Some  may  not  quite  agree  to  the  term  ‘borrowing’  but  then  what  Walt  Disney  made  the  character  into  was  brilliant.  How  so?  Well  Lessig  mentioned  “The  key  of  success  was  the  brilliance  of  the  differences.”  The  character  may  not  be  completely  original  BUT  what’s  brilliant  about  this  was  that  Disney  took  something  barely  old  and  created  something  new  out  of  it.  Disney  ripped  creativity  from  the  culture  he  see,  mixed  that  creativity  with  his  extraordinary  talent,  and  then  burn  it  all  together  in  one.

The  public  domain  in  the  year  that  Mickey  Mouse  was  created  was  not  very  old  and  quite  vibrant.  According  to  Lessig  about  this  “The  average  term  of  copyright  was  only  30  years  old —for  that  minority  of  creative  word  that  was  in  fact  copy-righted.  That  means  for  30  years,  on  average,  the  authors  or  copyright  holders  of  a  creative  work  had  an  “exclusive  right”  to  control  certain  uses  of  the  work.  To  use  this  copyrighted  work  in  limited  ways  required  the  permission  of  the  copyright  owner.

What  you  can  see  nowadays,  such  as  movies ,  not  all  of  them  are  original.  But  they  were  created  to  be  made  into  something  different  by  using  their  own  creativity  that  may  last  for  years.  Maybe  forever.  Like  Mickey  Mouse.  It  has  been  84  years  since  it  was  last  created  and  it  is  still  going  strong  and  popular  worldwide.


Lessig, L. 2004, Creators. In Free Culture: How Big Media uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Strangle Creativity pp. 21-30. accessed,  13/9/2012


Technology Nowadays.

Everywhere we go, we see, people constantly with their gadgets. Such as laptops and smart phones. It seems that people rely too much on technologies. But then, everything has it’s own pros and cons.

Let us go back to the past a bit shall we? Back when technology wasn’t as modern as it is now, employees had to used the normal device such as computers and make calls through the office phone. Which makes thing rather difficult for some. Why? Well, say if they can’t afford to buy their own computers, they will have to stay back and do their work in the office for computers back then were new and therefore, expensive. Not everyone was able to afford buying such thing.

But then, that was all in the past. As you can see now, technology now are different compared to the 80’s and 90’s. Now as have portable devices such as laptops and smart phones. Things that we can carry around when and wherever we want. This shows that people now can bring their work home and outside.

But as for now, the ‘IT’ thing is definitely smartphones. Some might ask, ‘Why bother spending so much money on something so small?’ To those that are curious, well smartphones basically have almost everything we need to complete our work or research. Other than doing work, we can communicate with the others about work. It is considered an important device for almost everyone and that includes students. This tool comes in handy for everyone.

But then again, there are pros and cons. Too much of technology isn’t always good. Why? Now that there are devices such as smart phones, it is considered you taking along your work with you. Again, why? “Designed and marketed as essential tools for the busy professional, such technologies are familiarly described in advertising copy as having revolutionised the working day, making the drudgery of the office a thing of the past.” (Gregg, n.d.)

Technologies such as smart phones may make your job easier but there are certain sacrifices that you will have to make and that is probably your free time and quality time with family and friends.


Gregg, M n.d., Function Creep: Communication technologies and anticipatory labour in the information workpplace, accessed 07/09/2012.  

Nature of Cyberspace

Technology has been and still growing each day. Today I shall, post a blog on what I’ve learned about Cyberspace.

Cyberspace is everywhere. It is literally universal. What do I mean by everywhere, well there are telephone wires, coaxial cables, fiber-optic lines or electromagnetic waves. Other than that, the basic needs that everyone needs nowadays, the internet which consist billions of sites. Sites that was created by humans. Sites that is able to be change by the creator and we as internet users are able to gain knowledge out of it.

Other than the internet, we have televisions which is a one-way transmitter and telephones which is a two-way portal.

Now I shall tell you a bit on what some people may not realise. When you talked on a phone, do you think that no third party are able to know what conversation you are talking about and the identity of the person you are communicating with?  Well if you don’t know, now you do. I shall give you an example. Say that you are involve in a very important case that involves breaking the law, the authorities which are the police are willing to go all out to solve the case and they will start by checking your phone records. They will check who you have been communicating with for the past hours before, during or after the crime happened. This is not something new, this tool has been used for quite sometime.

‘Warehouses’? Remember the type of ‘warehouse’ that was used back then, it is called a floppy disk or better known as diskette. Does it ring a bell? No? Maybe the image will help.

But now, people no longer use this kind of storage. Now people usual uses Thumb drive, External Disk and so much more.  Not only the storage change, but so does the size (MB/GB) changed as well. The amount of data, movies, series, documents you can put in a storage if you buy the kind of size that you want and need is just amazing.

Now the word ‘warehouse’ don’t just stand for this but it also helps improve customer service. How? Well in internet ‘warehouse’ people now use Facebook and Twitter to help improve businesses. I noticed the type of businesses that uses this tool is usually clothing line, accessories, perfumes and many more. It updates people on new items that are already out. Handy no?

Not only this kind of line uses the social media such as Facebook, but corporate company as well like Sime Darby makes their own Facebook page. It is all about communicating and spreading the words on what the company has to offer.

In conclusion, Cyberspace comes in handy for everyone. It is still growing and it will never stop. Yes, there are pros and cons, but it is no harm if you use it in a right way.



Dyson, E, Gilder, G, Keyworth, G & Toffler, A 1994, Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age, accessed 29/8/2012,

How Global Communication Was Used and Started

This  is  my  third  week  and  I  must  say,  the  subject  Global  Networks  is  starting  to  get rather  interesting  each  day.  I   guess  in  my  opinion,  it  is  rather  interesting  for  me  because  I  am  always  on  the  internet  24/7  and  the  amount  of research  and  readings  I  have  to  do  are  all  based  about  internet  and  are  from  the  internet  itself.

So  for  this  third  week,  I’ve  learned  on  how  communications  were  made  back  then.  Back  when  electronics  wasn’t  made  and  a  bit  on  how  the  very  first  communication  that  we  get  instantly.  Let  us  go  back  to  the  past  a  bit  shall we? The  very  first  thing  that   people  back  then  use  to  communicate  globally  was  a  Telegraph.  Prior  to  having  a  telegraph, the  other  solution  people uses  to  communicate  globally  was  through  horses  or  pigeons.  But  there  are  cons  on  using  those.  The  message  may  sometimes  not  reach  on time  and  it  might  take  days  just  to  get  back  a  respond.  Another  example,  which  I  shall  take  from  the  movie  Lord  of the Rings:  Return  of  the  King.  In  order  for  Gondor  to  get  help  from  the  people  of  Rohan,  they  light  a  beacon  and  the  beacon  shall  be lit  to  several  other  places  until  it  reaches  Rohan.  From  that  beacon,  Rohan  knows  that  Gondor  needed  help  for  the  war.

The  movie  may be  fiction  but  the  communication  they  used  was  real  and  was  used  back  in  the  old  days.

Back  to  the  telegraph.  Telegraph  was  the  very  first  communication  that  we  can  answers  instantly.  Telegraph  changed  the  world  more  than  the  internet  for  the  internet  is  the  progression  of  the  Telegraph.  Now  I shall  list  down  the  items  and  years  that  was  used  to  communicate  globally  in  the  past.  This  information  is  from lecture 13,  Global  Nervous  System

1837: First  commercial  electric  telegraph

1838:  dot-dash code

1858:  First  trans-Atlantic  cable

1876: Telephone

1895:  First  Radio  Telegraph

1924: Television

It’s  amazing  on  how  modern  technology  is  nowadays  compared  to  the  old  days  and I’m sure  you  all  can  see  that the  technology  now  is  still growing  each  day.  I  sometimes wonder what  the  world  will  and  how  Global  Communications  would  be  in  10  years  time  and  I  am  sure  that  I  am  not  the  only  one  that  wonders  about this.


Nafis, F. 2012 A Global Nervous System. August 13 [lecture] Selangor: University of Wollongong.

DIGC202 : Global Networks

My name is Aryssa Fahmy and this is my first semester at Inti International College Subang Jaya. I honestly didn’t know what to expect about the subject Global Networks and I be honest, I was actually terrified when I read the subject outline. Byt after that, I find the subject interesting. My brain was still slowly trying to digest all the information possible. But I’m sure I get through it.

So based on what I’ve learned in today’s class, I shall blog about one of the reading which is Castells, M. ‘Afterword: Why Networks Matter’

Networks are powerful and it has been growing each day. Networks allow us to communicate globally and it has become part of our daily lives.

Manual Castells stated 7 reasons on why networks matter.

  • Society through network is expanding rapidly and globally through Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and  many more. Through social network, any individual is able to communicate with each without boundaries, be friends with people from different countries, culture and so on even though they are separated by a 1000 miles.
  • Business uses network to not only expand but to also communicate with their clients. How do they meet their clients without having to pay for transportation? Easy. Video conference of course. By doing so, they not only save more money and time, but at the same time they can help save the environment.
  • Politicians. How do politicians get close to the people they need support from? Network of course. Most politicians have their own blogs to update their ideas on what they have in mind to make the country a better place to live in and also communicate with the people. Through blogging, the people will be able to give their feedbacks on what they think. Other than that, people can also get updated news about politics through another network, which is the news website.
  • When we have no idea and in need of information, what do we do? We of course use the search engine. As for me, I always Google the information I need for it is very helpful and I know I’m not the only who see it that way. Based on what I see, the most search engine that people use for now is Google and I see no reason on why it isn’t famous. Through Google, I be able to get my work and research done and I find it not time consuming at all if you know what you have to find.
  • Networks nowadays have different type of users and it is getting powerful each day compared to the past. Back in the old days, majority of people only use network just to get their job done. They used network for mails, discussion group, file transfers and so on. But now, you can see different type of users. People uses network for gaming, forum, files sharing, e-commerce and many more. All of these networks have more function and we can never get enough of it. Other than that, all of the functions I told you about won’t be the last of it. Why? Each day, you will see or hear about new technologies that are still in planning or progress or will be out soon. There is no limit in Global Network.
  • Media in network. Again, because of the rapid growth of network and technologies, there are online radio, online television, online news and so. People can access to all of these, just by using the right gadgets such as smartphones, iPad, laptop and many more. Like today for the Olympics 2012,because of media network, news spread about Dato’ Lee Chong Wei who only managed to win the silver medal and managed to make sport unite one nation behind one man.  Other than that, people uses E-Books instead of real books.Why? To save money of course and to avoid having to carry heavy books around.
  • Last but not least, network nowadays are used for different purposes and satisfactions. Every individual like what they like. But one thing for sure, network is useful for EVERYONE.

In conclusion, network has become part of our life. I can’t imagine living a day without network. That is how important network is to me.


Castells, M (2004) ‘Afterword: why networks matter’. In Network Logic: Who governs in an interconnected world? (pp.221-224)

Hello world!

Welcome to! This is your very first post. Click the Edit link to modify or delete it, or start a new post. If you like, use this post to tell readers why you started this blog and what you plan to do with it.

Happy blogging!